Simple Past

Use: actions or facts completed in the past. Finished time.


1. VERB-ed or VERB-d
draft ► drafted
argue ► argued

2. Some verbs add or change endings:
map ► mapped
try ► tried

3. Some verbs are irregular:
drive ► drove
make ► made
sleep ► slept

4. We use did + SUBJECT + VERB for questions:
Did you book a hotel room yet?
Did Mr. Gupta approve the request?

Negative Form: didn't/did not + VERB
No. I did not book a hotel yet.
She did not make reservations for Saturday night.

He drove for three hours to work everyday for thirty years. (past action)
Although she stopped singing around the age of ten, she is a pop idol now because of her dancing. (She used to sing)

Past Continuous
Use: actions that were happening at a certain time in the past when something else happened.

Form: past BE verb (was, were) + VERB-ing
She was baking a pie when I left this morning.

She was writing the letter while watching the game. (was happening at the same time)
They were driving to the game when the accident happened. (was happening before)

Negative Form: was/were not VERB-ing
I was not wearing pajamas when the police came. I was wearing comfortable clothes.

Present Perfect
Use: actions and experiences in the past that are relevant now. Unfinished time.
Form: has/have PAST PARTICIPLE (driven, given, made, written etc.)
Negative Form: has/have not PAST PARTICIPLE

We have lived in this house for twenty years. = Twenty years ago, we moved into this house. We still live in this house now.
He has climbed Mount Everest three times. = He climbed Mount Everest in 1988, 1999, and 2012. He might climb it again.
Sara has not completed the project yet. (negative form) = Sara started the project on Monday. It is now Friday, and the project is still not done.