Simple Past

Use: actions or facts completed in the past. Finished time.

1. VERB-ed or VERB-d
draft ► drafted
argue ► argued

2. Some verbs add or change endings:
map ► mapped
try ► tried

3. Some verbs are irregular:
drive ► drove
make ► made
sleep ► slept

4. We use did + SUBJECT + VERB for questions:
Did you book a hotel room yet?
Did Mr. Gupta approve the request?

Negative Form: didn't/did not + VERB
No. I didn't book a hotel yet.
She didn't make reservations for Saturday night.
He drove for three hours to work everyday for thirty years. (past action)
Although she stopped singing around the age of ten, she is a pop idol now because of her dancing. (She used to sing.)

Past Continuous

Use: actions that were happening at a certain time in the past when something else happened.

Form: past BE verb (was, were) + VERB-ing
She was baking a pie when I left this morning.
She was writing the letter while watching the game. (was happening at the same time)
They were driving to the game when the accident happened. (was happening before)

Negative Form: was/were not VERB-ing
I was not wearing pajamas when the police came. I was wearing comfortable clothes.

Past Perfect

Use: actions and facts true before another event in the past. Finished time.

1. had VERB-ed or VERB-d
draft ► had drafted
argue ► had argued

2. Some verbs are irregular:
drive ► had driven
make ► had made
sleep ► had slept

He had driven 120 miles when he realized that he forgot his medication. (He had driven before he forgot.)
Negative Form: had not + VERB
They had not practiced together when they won first place. (They had not practiced before they won.)